Why ‘glocalisation’ is in and ‘internationalisation’ is on its way out

The need for higher education institutions to shift away from the western paradigm of knowledge which it has been subdued under for the past 40 years has now become crucial. 

Better quality of life through better education

 

Internationalisation and the hidden agenda 

Internationalisation has been at the forefront of global education for decades now, regardless of international scholars continuously speaking out against it. For the past 40 years, as an increasing number of students enrol in these institutions, a constant flow of knowledge is transferred to them from superiors and well-learnt lecturers. However, there has been criticism concerning said knowledge – that it only pertains to a first-world western base of knowledge and ideologies, pushing out other geographical forms of knowledge in order to focus on one mere source.

It was recently discovered that the international higher education industry had failed to meet the 2015 Millennium Development Goals, being unable to lead social change and upraise educational standards. This in turn brings about the questions as to whether the intended concept of internalisation is misleading or far too in-tune with western ideologies to produce results otherwise. Instead, it is easy to assume that such a concept of internalisation merely works towards sustaining western economies.

By far, the world has only seen the internalisation of higher education become increasingly significant, and a highly profitable industry in its own right; which, once analysed, might prove to be the outcome of an intelligently bound agenda formed from our western counterparts.

 

A step forward with Glocalisation 

Glocalisation, on the other hand, has been the buzzword amongst higher education institutions for a while now; a combination of ‘globalisation’ and ‘localisation,’ with the aim to build glocal communities and sustainable living worldwide by working towards enabling a better quality of life through high education standards and values.

It dismisses the core aims internalisation had set out to achieve and failed, and instead encourages the exchange of a diverse cultural knowledge base amongst said glocal communities. In keeping with the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), international higher education communities are encouraged to adopt a more diverse agenda in order to act as a catalyst for social transformation – with a more inclusive knowledge base, this time around, encompassing all aspects of learning and education.

With glocalisation, the higher education communication must move away from the hegemonic conception of learning, where focus is placed only on upholding the English language and various western ideologies for further profits extorted from foreign students. Both First and Third-World communities and institutions must align to create quality and diverse knowledge bases to create a glocal community worldwide.

 

(Source: University World News)

Academics and Mental Health Risks

In a report commissioned by the Royal Society and Wellcome Trust, researchers found out that the majority of people working in higher education find their jobs stressful. This makes them more prone to developing common mental health problems as compared to other professions.

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Factors such as lack of job security, limited support from management, and the weight of work-related demands on their time were among the factors listed as affecting the health, according to the literature review conducted by RAND Europe, an independent not-for-profit research institute.

In their research, the team did a systematic review of published work on researchers’ well-being and identified 48 studies which they analysed for their report.

According to lead researcher Dr Susan Guthrie, their survey data indicate that the majority of university staff find their job stressful. “Levels of burnout appear higher among university staff than in general working populations and are comparable to ‘high-risk’ groups such as healthcare workers,” she added.

Further, the report also said that “In large-scale surveys, UK higher education staff have reported worse well-being than staff in other types of employment in the areas of work demands, change management, the support provided by managers and clarity about one’s role.”

The report also added that the real and perceived job insecurity, particularly those who are at the beginning of their careers, often employed on a series of short-term contracts, is an important issue for researchers.

In their report, Dr Guthrie and her team discovered that those who devoted a lot of time on their research experienced less stress as compared to those who did not. However, it is unclear whether this reduction in stress is relative to their seniority — whereas a more senior researcher is able to spend more time on their study.

In conclusion, the report calls for universities to work with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and help address the stress in the workplace. Further, the Royal Society and the Wellcome Trust urges institutions to work more closely with the UK’s regulator of health and safety in the workplace to address the risks to staff well-being. By following the management standards set by HSE, universities can identify and alleviate stress at an organisational level.

“It could be useful to work through that approach with a university or a research organisation to identify the mechanisms at play in those environments. Doing so could establish the relevance of the approach in this context, and potentially provide a model that could be used more widely in the sector,” the report added.

(Source: Times Higher Education)

Is your University Prepared for Threat and Evacuation?

In the light of the recent attacks in some of the major cities in the world, it’s time for education authorities to evaluate their efforts to help combat terrorism, as well as what they should do should such event arises.

According to the 2016 Global Terrorism Index, the number of attacks decreased by 10% in 2015 despite the high-profile attacks in the main cities in the world. However, despite the fall, terrorism attacks has still become a major concern worldwide.

Just last month, the cities of Manchester, Marawi, Jakarta, and Pattani have brought back terrorism on the front pages. Since the start of 2017, there have been 496 attacks worldwide, carried out by attacked by groups and individuals believed to be working within the terrorist network or have been supporting the radical groups.

Attacks on Schools and Universities

Schools and universities are not spared from these vicious acts. For the past few years, educational institutions have become a target for terrorist attacks. According to the data gathered by the University of Maryland’s Global Terrorism Database, which lists more than 125,000 terrorist attacks around the world since 1970, there has been a rise in terror attacks in schools since 2004.

 

Terrorist Attacks Targeting Educational Institutions Worldwide, 1970-2013

Terror 1

(Data: Global Terrorism Database; The Atlantic)

 

In a paper published in the Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology in 2013, researchers Emma Bradford and Margaret A. Wilson of the University of Liverpool’s Department of Applied Psychology highlighted some possible reasons why schools have been attacked by terrorists.

The first reason is that there is a relative lack of physical security compared to other potential targets such as airports, military installations, and government embassies. Aside from the damage to the property, attacks on schools can inflict horrifying damage to students, especially the young ones. Attacks on schools also elicit stronger emotional responses. Another motivation is the extensive media coverage an attack on an educational institution might attract.

Despite these benefits, terrorists’ attacks on schools are still relatively lower as compared to overall terrorist targets recorded in the Global Terrorism Database. However, there has been an increase in the percentage from 2004 to 2013, 2% to 3% respectively, with a peak of 5% in 2010.

 

Total Terrorist Attacks and Attacks on Educational Institutions Worldwide, 1970-2013

Terror 2

(Data: Global Terrorism Database; The Atlantic)

 

What can Schools and Universities do?

In the UK, the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 has been put into place – despite debates and hesitations. Narrowing down to universities and colleges, the act “imposes a duty on “specified authorities”, when exercising their functions, to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism.”

However, educational institutions on their own can already devise ways on how to prevent such attacks and what to do should events like such as mentioned occur. School safety expert Kenneth A. Trump said, “The vast majority of schools have not taken into account in their crisis planning all of the issues related to terrorism.”

In an article published in Education World, he said: “Some issues, such as handling bombs and bomb threats, creating emergency communications plans, and preparing for gunfire on campus should already have been in the plans.”

Measures can contain:

  1. Open communication on terrorism by explaining the reasons and possible effects of these acts.
  2. Creating an emergency plan which includes detailed evacuation procedures, alternate destinations, communication plan, and disaster supply kits. Learning how to do CPR and First Aid are also important.
  3. Counselling plan in the aftermath of an event, especially to young children.

According to Trump, principals should address this situation, despite the concern that parents, students, and teachers would overreact to the topic of terrorism preparedness. “Fear is best managed through education, communication, and preparation,” he said.

“By not addressing these issues and operating with ‘ostrich syndrome,’ schools are actually creating more fear and panic among parents and school officials. The key rests in context, balance, and reasonable efforts. And of course, discussions with students must be age and developmentally appropriate,” he added.

The truth is, there is uncertainty as to the extent and duration of these terrorist attacks. There is also no particular time or day when such acts will occur. While there one plan does not fit all crises, it is still better to be prepared beforehand.

As education officials, no one knows the school and the students better than you. While the responsibility rests on your shoulders, you do not need to act on this alone. Rather, call upon the parents, authorities, and the students themselves on how to better protect each other in times of trouble.

New HEI Alliance Formed in Asia

A group of top Asian institutions have come together to help boost collaboration and mobility, aiming to accelerate Asia in the Higher Education industry.

AUA

Image from Tsinghua.edu

The Asian Universities Alliance (AUA), is a 15-member consortium which aims to “promote mobility of students, scholars and staff among all members,” “strengthen research collaboration and joint innovation,” “establish high-level dialogues and forums to discuss higher education strategies and policies,” and “compile and publish annual reports on Asian higher education.”

Chaired by the Tsinghua University, China, the founding members also include:
• Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
• Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
• Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
• King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
• National University of Singapore
• Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan
• Peking University, China
• Seoul National University, South Korea
• United Arab Emirates University
• Universitas Indonesia
• University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
• University of Malaya, Malaysia
• The University of Tokyo, Japan
• University of Yangon, Myanmar

In a statement released to announce the new alliance, the members expressed their belief that the “higher education will play an increasingly important role in future Asian societies and that economic globalization has made openness the trend of higher education.”

“AUA will embrace that trend by building closer ties both among member universities and with universities outside AUA. Together, we will play a more significant role in world higher education,” the statement added.

Free Study Programmes in Scotland for EU Students

The Scottish government has announced that from next academic year onwards, European Union (EU) students will have the chance to study in Scotland tuition-free.

 
Scotland’s Deputy Prime Minister John Swinney announced last 24 March that students from the EU countries would be guaranteed free tuition throughout the duration of their courses. With this move, Scotland is putting pressure on the UK government for them to follow similar footsteps.

John-Swinney

Photo from Express.co.uk

“Following the uncertainty caused by the UK government hard Brexit and the imminent triggering of Article 50, Mr Swinney has moved to reassure applicants for 2018-19, confirming the guarantee already in place for eligible EU students enrolling this year will be extended to those beginning their studies the following academic year,” said the announcement from the Scottish Government.

Just last October 2016, the Westminister government has announced that EU students from outside the UK who will be enrolling for the academic year 2017-2018, will still be eligible for student loans and maintenance fees. However, despite the pressure from UK Universities, the government has not offered any funding guarantees for incoming non-British EU students for the academic year 2018-2019.

Following the Brexit Vote, the effects of the restrictions have been felt by both students and academe. The EU student applications at UK Universities in 2017 fell by 7%, as compared to the previous year.

According to the Scottish government, their decision for free tuition is as a result of the uncertainty caused by the Brexit policy. This way the Scottish government can reassure universities in Scotland with applicants from the EU for the upcoming academic year.

Mr Swinney said, “EU students will rightly have concerns about any change in their status halfway through a course. These students deserve certainty, and knowing that their free tuition is in place for the entirety of their course is important. That is why I have confirmed this free tuition,” he said.

“I am proud that Scotland is a destination of choice for EU students, and I am delighted to give them further reassurance by confirming that support from the Scottish government for tuition-free studies will continue for those commencing courses here in the 2018-19 academic year.”

Report from the Times Higher Education

Studying Abroad: Cultural Preference Tops Academics for Gen Z

A research conducted by AFS Intercultural Programs concluded that Generation Z prefers the cultural aspect of studying abroad over considering the quality of education.

Over 5,000 students were surveyed from 27 countries around the world with ages ranging from 13 to 18 years old between March and December 2016.

international-student

According to the study, 67% of the students have shown high value on the cultural experiences that are bound to come while studying abroad compared to the scholastics and education.

Daniel Obst, the president and CEO of AFS expressed that based on the findings, Generation Z students do not only want to travel overseas for the sake of it but actually want to experience what the local people of foreign countries experience. He adds that they are keen on having a ‘global’ status on their identity when compared to older generations.

Of the 67% of culture-yearning students, there are two groups. ‘Cultural hitchhikers’ or those whose primary focus is on cultural experience that does not have high financial resources make up 36% of the respondents. On the other hand, ‘cultural floaters’ or students with high financial resources and who intends to experience other cultures are 31% of the students.

culture-yearning-international-students

When broken down by nationality, three-quarters of the students who prefer culture more than academics are European, followed by 57% from Latin America, 58% from Southeast Asia and 72% from North America.

According to a report, Mapping Generation Z: Attitudes toward International Education Programs, AFS discovered that the top destinations of this generation were Anglophone or English-speaking countries to be most considered, achieving a percentage of 77% of students. The countries most preferred were the US, UK and Australia.

Western European countries like Germany, France and Italy faired 65% as favourable countries and China being the least favourable fairing 38% of the Gen Z students.

“These findings paint a picture of large growth potential for the traditionally popular English destinations and set the tone for increasing competitive pressures among them” the report noted.

Concerning security issues, 36% of students expressed their anxiety but after May 2016, the percentage increased to 52% as the terrorist attacks were publicised globally.

Other issues concerning studying abroad were making no friends, followed by homesickness and school re-entry requirements upon returning home, each shared by 48% of students.

None of the respondents had been on an international exchange before this but 60% has considered the possibility.

Hristo Banov, manager of the management information unit at AFS and the study’s lead researcher said that in order to increase the interest of students to study in foreign countries, it is important for information to travel by word of mouth.

He adds that, in today’s environment, ‘genuine, personal referral’ remains unchanged although students listen to experiences from immediate friends and family but also get to see the experiences of others from their extended social media footprint.

New Regulations Allow Post-Grad International Students to Work in China after their Studies

The Chinese government has decided to set regulations concerning post-study labour allowing Post-Grad international students to work after completing their degree in the country.

china-international-student

The action was called as a strategy to establish China as a study destination and attract potential talents to globalise its workforce. The new regulations announced on 6 January by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, Foreign Affairs and Education, stated that foreign students who have graduated with a master’s degree or above from the universities in China or other “well-known universities” are eligible to work.

Previously, international students with foreign degrees were required to have two years of work experience outside China. This, however, prevented international students in the country from continuing to work after graduating from their studies according to Erik Skuse, research manager at Emerging Strategy, a market intelligence company based in Shanghai.

“This policy change is a recognition that if China wants to expand its international higher education capacity further, it must leverage the attractiveness of China’s massive, globalised employment market among foreign students seeking to start careers,” commented Skuse.

The country is taking action to grow its number of global students from of 390,000 students in 2015 according to the Ministry of Education.

international-student-china

To apply for the one-year work visa, students must have had previously secured a job with a Chinese company according to their respective field of study, which meets local skill demands and offers a salary set to market standards. Student applicants must be over the age of 18 and have obtained a B (80%) grade average or higher.

This new policy hopes to encourage more foreign students to choose China as a study destination and then to stay and work here,” commented Jill Tang, founder of CareerXFactor, a talent recruitment company for graduates with foreign degrees.

She also mentioned that China will still need to import either knowledge or people from overseas to accommodate certain skills.

Tang also says that certain big companies are thinking of providing internships or graduate programmes for international students and later send them back to their homelands to contribute to the growth of the company there.

USA now home to 1 million international students

While a future count may be uncertain amongst the Trump presidency debacle, the Institute of International Education (IIE)’s Open Doors report portrays a continuing increase in the number of inbound international students.

USA

A 7% growth during the 2015/2016 years was put out by the Open Doors report, which drew its results from more than 3,000 prestigious higher education institutions in the USA.

China and India, as previewed in previous reports, hold the bulk of inbound international students, with Chinese students accountable for 31.5% of the entire international student population in the USA, with a 8.1% overall increase to a complete 328,547 students. Meanwhile, 24.9% more Indian students were reported to be coming in to the country as compared to the 2014/2015 numbers. Other countries such as Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Canada, among many others are too home to the highest number of foreign students in the USA, although a notable decrease in students was seen from Saudi Arabia and Canada. The biggest decrease in international students, however, was from Brazil, a decrease of 18.2%, which may be linked to the government’s Scientific Mobility Program freeze.

The total student population in the USA is now inclusive of 5% international students overall, who, according to the US Department of Commerce, contributed more than US$35 billion to the economy.

In terms of academic level, while both undergraduate (7%) and postgraduate (6%) students increased in numbers during 2015/2016, the highest increase, of 23% was seen in Optional Practical Training.

Courses pursued by a large part of the international student population were STEM subjects, which may lead to a possible correlation with the rise in students from India as well, seeing as how, as reported by IIE, more than three-quarters of Indian students tend to go into the STEM field. What was also noticeable of students originating from India was the higher number or graduate students (101,800) studying in the USA as compared to undergraduate students (19,300).

Students

On the opposite end, 313,000 USA students were reported to be studying abroad in 2015, a minute 3% increase, with two-thirds of the number belonging to the female gender, and 27% racial or ethnic minorities.

IIE President Allan Goodman, on the surpassing of the 1 million international students mark commented, “The Open Doors findings show that international students value the quality, diversity and strong reputation of US institutions and recognize that these institutions will give them opportunities that can help them not only in their education but also in their careers.”

Survey reveals what potential students look for when deciding on an MBA

A step up from previous years, the rise and potential of entrepreneurship is now one of the top reasons, among several others, as to why students wish to pursue an MBA.

Amidst several reports undermining the value of an MBA and its decline comes the Tomorrow’s MBA study, conducted by CarringtonCrisp and constituting of the voices and opinions of more than a 1000 potential MBA students from 82 countries.

One of the survey’s key findings were the reasons behind students wanting to pursue an MBA, of which the rise in earning potential took priority, while other factors such as employability and the want to be internationally recognised made the list as well. The desire to venture into entrepreneurship too topped the list as the fifth most significant reason, up from 10th place in last year’s survey. The sudden push of this specific topic of interest brings to mind the need for an MBA’s content to be tailored differently so as to support and acquire more students’ interests, that “Given this interest, schools should think about what they teach, career services provided and how they align programmes with this growing demand.”

business-163501_1280

With the Kauffman Index of Start-up Activity reporting that 550,000 individuals emerge as entrepreneurs each month in America, it’s an easy task at a glimpse of the entrepreneurship boom in recent years. Several reasons, such as the ease with which ideas can now be brought to life, and a changing and more encouraging economy, entrepreneurs often tend to gain success, walking down such a path.

The survey also detailed several other findings, such as the number of women who are actively considering working towards an MBA, making up to a complete 42% of the total candidate number, the highest to be recorded in previous surveys. Andrew Crisp, owner of CarringtonCrisp, highlights the advance in technology as a vital factor in allowing more women to pursue an MBA, with methods such as online distance learning now easily accessible to the overall population, such as for women “who’ve come out of the labour force for a while – maybe they’ve been having children – to do an MBA without having to sit in a classroom of men who are trying to get into a finance career, with everything that goes with the culture of some of the big finance houses,” says Crisp.

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Following up on this, Crisp additionally remarks that it would be the successful schools who realise that it is integral to market to both potential male and female candidates, keeping in mind the difference in each gender’s perceptions and opinions of what they look for in an MBA and the additional services offered to them. A fine example of this is the difference both genders hold in valuing assistance while in search of an internship, with female candidates ranking at 72% while male candidates ranked at a lower 60%.

The essentiality of career services being part of an MBA course too was present in the findings, with 72% of individuals desiring for help in planning a career which would make them more employable in the near future.

On the topic of what can be called an “MBA 2.0,” –which seeks to be more flexible and look into the changing and growing interests of potential candidates –technology’s advance has been quite a game-changer, with the survey reporting that, as it now stands, more than a quarter of potential candidates prefer flexible or online MBAs, instead of the usual one-year, full-time MBA.

As a final note, Crisp advises schools offering MBAs that “It’s not necessarily the longest running programmes that are going to be the best; it’s going to be the ones that are quickest to adapt, that embrace the new technology, that use it to best effect to deliver a really outstanding online experience.”

Decline in EU students applications to UK Universities

In the wake of the Brexit vote last June, a sharp drop in the applications to the United Kingdom (UK) Universities from the students coming from countries in the European Union (EU), have been recorded in the first deadline round. This finding was revealed by the latest figures from the Universities and Colleges Application Service (UCAS).

UK, Brexit, EU, Euro, Education, Study Abroad

According to the data released, there was a 9% plunge in the applications for the courses with an October deadline–these includes medicine, dentistry, as well as courses in the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford. Last year recorded 6,860 EU students, while there are 6,240 this year. The number shows the end of the several years of a consecutive surge in the number of applications from EU students.

Meanwhile, the number of applications from domestic students rose to a 3% increase in application to 39,440. There was also a 1% boost in the applications from non-EU students to study in the UK from autumn of next year.

According to Mary Curnock, chief executive of UCAS, they “will be watching the numbers of EU applications in the run-up to the January deadline, especially now that the government has confirmed arrangements for continuing access to student loans for 2017 courses.”

The applications for the early deadline period opened in September, with uncertainty on whether EU students can have access to student loans and grants, as well as whether they would continue to pay domestic student fees.

Jo Johnson, UK, Brexit, EU, Euro, Education

Jo Johnson Minister of State for Universities, Science, Research and Innovation (image from THE)

It was only on 11 October–four days before the deadline–that Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities, Science, Research and Innovation, confirmed that funding and fees arrangements would remain unchanged for EU students enrolling in 2017.

“It is important that we make clear that European students continue to be welcome in coming to the UK to study,” said Nicola Dandridge chief executive of Universities UK. She also stressed that the figures highlight the importance of ensuring prospective European applicants understand the fees and financial support arrangements “well in advance of the application window.”

She also added that the demand for a UK higher education “remains strong” because of its reputation for quality.

Meanwhile, a government spokesperson said it is “too early in the application cycle to predict reliable trends.”